Disability

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Contents

The Disability Community Network

Definitions and Scope

Target Population: People with Disabilities

Persons with disabilities refer to “those whose prospects of securing, retaining places and advancing in education and training institutions, employment and recreation as equal members of the community are substantially reduced as a result of physical, sensory, intellectual and developmental impairments.” Enabling Masterplan, MSF

[Point to note: Lien Centre for Social Innovation adopts this definition in their recent publication titled People with Physical Disabilities in Singapore: Understanding Disabling Factors in Caregiving, Education, Employment and Finances.]

There is no standard definition of disability which is accepted by all stakeholders. For example, NCSS/SSI lists a SSI course on mental illness under disability category, but in practice persons with chronic mental illness are not eligible for disability policies and programmes. This group is also not covered by Public Transport Concession Scheme for Persons with Disabilities, for which only those with "Physical Disability, Visual Impairment, Hearing Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability" qualify.

"But this differs from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, because those with mental health impairments - such as depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders - are left out. When asked about this, the MSF says not all mental illnesses result in disabilities, and with medication and treatment, patients are able to function well on their own." (ST 8 May 2016)

Client Segments

Page to Adults with Autism

Page to Visual Impairment

Page to Hearing Impairment

Page to Arts and Disability

Page to Intellectual Disability

Size of the Problem

No definite data of the total number of people with disability exists, because no official central registry or comprehensive disability study has been done. According to 2013 data from SG Enable, Singapore has about 100,000 people with disabilities. In view of Singapore’s ageing population, this number will increase by 2030 as more people acquire a disability through the ageing process. According to Singapore’s population index, “the number of elderly citizens will triple to 900,000 by 2030.” Population.sg

In Singapore, those with disabilities are estimated to make up 3 per cent of the population or well over 100,000 people.(ST 27 Sep 2016)

Some disability prevalence rates of Singapore citizens with disabilities are available from the Enabling Masterplan 2017-2021. According to the foreword of the Enabling Masterplan 2017-2021, 2.1% of the student population have disabilities. (Source: Ministry of Education. This is based on the number of reported cases of students with sensory impairment, physical impairment, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. The total student population is put at approximately 460,000). Of the resident population aged 18 – 49 years, 3.4% have disabilities (Source: National Council of Social Service. Based on a random sampling of 2,000 Singapore residents and permanent residents aged 18 and above done by NCSS in 2015, the self-reported disability prevalence rate was 3.4% for those aged 18 – 49 years old. This includes those who acquired disabilities due to accidents and illness.) Of the resident population aged 50 years and above, 13.3% have disabilities (Source: National Council of Social Service. Based on a random sampling of 2,000 Singapore residents and permanent residents aged 18 and above done by NCSS in 2015, the self-reported disability prevalence rate was 13.3% for those aged 50 years and above. This includes those who acquired disabilities due to accidents, illness and older age).

To view and download the Enabling Masterplan 2017-2021, go to the Ministy of Social and Family Development's Disabilities and Special Needs page: (Enabling Masterplan 2017-2021)

Desired Outcomes

[Need data/information]

Needs

Sources

EARLY INTERVENTION


Need for timely and effective early intervention

  • While EIPIC serves around 3,200 children with mod-severe special needs, waitlists can extend from 6 months to 1 year. Further, early intervention professionals tend to have high turnover and quick burnout, due to unattractive remuneration compared to the private sector.

STATISTICS

  • 7,000 children aged 6 and below have developmental difficulties as of 2015[1]
  • Between 2010 and 2014, KKH and NUS screenings show a 76% increase in children 6 and below with developmental issues such as development delays, speech and language delays, learning difficulties and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)[2]
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Post-Diagnostic Touchpoints

[need information]

  • For caregivers of children with ASD, touchpoints are poorly equipped in advising parents on where to obtain reliable help during the post-diagnostic phase
  • Recommendations from EM3 that MSF will consider[3]
    • Recommendation 3, Strategic Direction 1: Improve transition management
      • For newly-diagnosed cases, to set up an agency to provide case referral, care planning and advisory services, and to facilitate smooth handover of information to other agencies
      • Includes developing a standardised case management tool between primary support agency and other service providers
    • Recommendation 4, Strategic Direction 4: Enhance network of touchpoints to ensure timely and effective detection of developmental needs
      • To make information and training more available to touchpoints (e.g., family, hospitals, polyclinics, family medicine practitioners, community partners) such as using electronic platforms, training primary care practitioners
Development Support (DS) & Learning Support (LS)
  • For pre-school children with mild developmental needs [total number of such children?]
  • Support and intervention in areas such as speech and language, social skills, motor skills, behaviour and literacy
  • Rolled out to > 300 preschools, > 2,000 children and families, caa December 2015[4]
  • [outcomes information on how DS/LS has fared?]
Early Intervention Programme for Infants & Children (EIPIC)
  • Therapy and educational support services for children below 6 years with special needs at risk of moderate to severe developmental delays [total number of such children?]
  • 21 EIPIC Centres, caa July 2018[5]
  • Currently serving about 2,600 children[6], projected to grow to 3,200 places by 2018[7][8]
  • Enhanced Pilot for Private Intervention Providers to subsidise selected Private Intervention Centres
  • SPD - Building Bridges @ EIPIC Centres are at Tiong Bahru, Jurong, Tampines & Bedok served a total of 465 children in FY16/17[9] - 41 graduated, 27 progressing to mainstream primary and the rest to SPED
  • EIPIC Centres have long waiting lists (up to six months[10] or a year[11])
  • Early Intervention Professionals face quick burnout, unattractive salaries/benefits relative to the private sector and shortage of manpower[12][13]
  • Long waiting lists at EIPIC Centres - (1) If disproportionately high at certain EIPIC Centres, to educate and counsel parents on their choice of centre or (2) scale up vacancies
Community Educational Support Services

EDUCATION

  • OVERARCHING GAP : Ambiguity over what ‘inclusive education’ means.
    • UNCRPD Article 24 gives an idea , but there is no coordinating or national policy about inclusion from which mainstream and SPED schools can develop their inclusive programmes and practice
    • Some tend to describe inclusion as only placement in a mainstream classroom, while others mistakenly assume it is a one-size-fits-all approach
    • EI professionals describe it as “special needs children being accepted for who they are and given opportunities to learn, grow, develop their full potentials and live meaningfully”[12] 

Need for accessible and quality pre-school options

  • Many mainstream preschools are reluctant to take in children with special needs because their facilities and their teachers are not equipped, and there are only a handful of inclusive preschools & ICCPs.
  • While private pre-schools are better in quality and accessibility, they may not be affordable to all parents.
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Inclusive Preschools
  • Lack of affordable pre-school options. Inclusive learning environments pose higher costs which can prohibit those from low/middle-income families. Private operators are costly and limited as well.[16] Kindle Garden raised fees fees from $980 to $1,880 a month for full-day childcare from January 2018 (Median fee for full-day childcare is $867 caa 30 June 2017[17])
  • Parents report difficulties enrolling children with preschools[18]:
    • Estimated that 70% of EIPIC students do not attend preschool due to severity of their needs and lack of readiness of preschools to take child in
    • Many parents feel their kids inadequately supported by inexperienced staff, an unsuitable curriculum and inadequate school facilities 
Integrated Child Care Programme (ICCP)
  • Select childcare centres that allow children with mild special needs to learn, play and socialise alongside their mainstream peers
  • 14 ICCP Centres caa 18 May 2018[19]

Need for trained educators in both special education (SPED) and mainstream settings

There are certification pathways for educators in SPED and mainstream settings in the area of SEN; however, the issue is whether certifications are adequate, and attracting people to take on this training and career in the first place.

  • For mainstream teachers, the compulsory 12-hour module on special needs does not offer in-depth learning, and there is no follow-up subsequently to ensure that teachers know how to manage practically.
  • SPED teachers face unattractive salaries and burnout.
  • The 500 allied educators hired by MOE are not adequately trained in terms of behavioural management and lack clarity on their roles and expectations vis-a-vis the teachers.
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Mainstream Teachers
  • NIE Pre-Service Training on Special Needs features a compulsory 12-hour module on special needs for all beginning teachers
  • Teachers Trained in Special Needs (TSN) comprise 10% of teachers in mainstream primary schools and 20% in secondary schools.[20]
  • NIE training does not offer depth of learning, particularly the practical learning and hands-on experience needed to prepare teachers to manage a class with students with disabilities[21]
    • Anecdotal: "The lesson is really only 4-6 hours, across 1-2 lessons"
  • TSNs in St. Anthony's Canossian Secondary School developed an in-house training module
Formal Education Certification
  • Low remuneration and occupational prestige, and high course fees deter many from entering the field of special education[23][24][25][26][27]
    • Entry requirements differ - becoming a SPED teacher does not require a degree[28]
    • Dispute: "Salaries of SPED teachers and MOE teachers are equal at the start, but diverge as MOE teachers have better progression pathways (hence higher pay)" - Social Service Sector Salary Guidelines[29]
    • Dispute: "There are salary adjustments every three years."
  • High turnover of SPED teachers[30]
    • Dispute: [What is the actual data? Vs. mainstream schools?]
    • Lack of adequate training in the area of student behavioural management
    • SPED teachers do not have have the same progression opportunities as mainstream teachers[31]
    • [Are there enough/trained SPED Teachers to manage increase intake of students due to Revised Compulsory Education Act?]
  • Establish provisions for self-care for SPED professionals
  • Some professionals enter the field in pursuit of a perceived calling (rather than purely monetary aspects); can they be supported in realising their calling/aims? [32]
Allied Educators (Learning and Behavioural Support)
  • Provides support to students to meet their needs and behavioural challenges
  • All 190 primary schools and 69 secondary schools (40% of the total number of secondary schools) have at least one AED(LBS)[33]
  • Currently around 500 AED(LBS), set to rise[34]
  • [Need outcome information as to whether AED(LBS):SEN student ratio is sufficient]
  • High turnover of Allied Educators[35]
    • [What is the actual data?]
    • Due to unclear job scope, low remuneration and lack of career progression, as well as perceived lower work status relative to MOE teachers[36]
    • Lack of adequate training in the area of student behavioural management
    • [Are there enough/trained Allied Educators to manage increase intake of students due to Revised Compulsory Education Act?]
  • For students with disabilities who have experienced trauma, financial stress and who come from broken/dysfunctional families, they require intensive help. In addition to allied professionals, what of family, art and music therapists?
    • Only two SPED schools under Rainbow Centre have art and music therapists

Need to gain access to an adequate education (mainstream school, homeschooling, alternative education etc.)

  • The Revised Compulsory Education Act will ensure that most children with special needs aged 6-15 attend school; however there are concerns about its implementation (e.g. affordability of SPED schools, caregiving and transport arrangements, readiness of schools and special needs educators to accept a higher intake).
  • There is a plethora of financial assistance and transport support from SG Enable, but the affordability of education remains a challenge to families more affected by costs involved in schooling a special needs child, especially those with severe conditions.

STATISTICS

  • 2.1% of the student population has disabilities, based on the number of reported cases of students with sensory impairment, physical impairment, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. The total student population is put at approximately 460,000[3]
  • There are 31,000 students with special needs (80% mainstream school, 20% SPED)[37] ; 20,000 children with SEN have enrolled in mainstream schools[38]
  • A third of Singaporeans do not have a disabled person in their social circles [39]
  • About 1% of students across publicly-funded universities, polytechnics and ITEs have some form of disability[40]
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Mainstream Primary Schools
  • Deaf/Hearing Impairment
    • Mayflower Primary School
  • Physical Disabilities
    • 57 primary schools have barrier-free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)
  • Learning Disabilities
    • DAS’ Main Literacy Programme
    • School-based Dyslexia Remediation (SDR) Programme
  • Not all mainstream primary schools are fully accessible to all disability types. Few mainstream schools offer facilities for students with sensory impairments (VI/HI).
  • Recommendations from EM3 that MSF will consider[3]
    • Recommendation 5, Strategic Direction 3
      • To enhance capability of professional staff in mainstream schools to support students with SEN
      • To implement AT and resources for SEN students
Mainstream Secondary Schools
  • Deaf/Hearing Impairment
    • Beatty Secondary School (Signing)
    • Outram Secondary School (Oral)
    • St Anthony’s Canossian Secondary School (Oral)
  • Visual Impairment
    • Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School
    • Bedok South Secondary School
    • Dunearn Secondary School
  • Physical Disabilities
    • 34 secondary schools have barrier free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)
  • Learning Disabilities
    • DAS’ Main Literacy Programme
    • School-based Dyslexia Remediation (SDR) Programme
  • Not all mainstream secondary schools are fully accessible to all disability types
  • Recommendations from EM3 that MSF will consider[3]
    • Recommendation 5, Strategic Direction 3
      • To enhance capability of professional staff in mainstream schools to support students with SEN
      • To implement AT and resources for SEN students
Special Education (SPED) Schools
  • Serve students from 7-21 years of age
  • 19 SPED Schools funded by the government as of January 2018[41] , by APSN, Metta, PCS, MINDS, AWWA, Rainbow Centre, CPAS, ARC, AA, SAMH, Canossian Daughters and SAVH
  • Guided by the SPED Curriculum Framework
  • Limited number of SPED schools, with long waiting lists up to two years[42].
    • MOE has said that parents contribute to longer wait lists and waiting times for admission by fixating on a single school
  • Lack of pathways for SPED students to enter/re-enter the mainstream education system, or to access the mainstream curricula (e.g., Physical Education, Home Economics).
    • Some argue that the divergence of the SPED curricula right from the start makes it impractical to re-join the mainstream education format
Tertiary Institutions (Polys/ITEs/JCs/CI/Universities & Lasalle/NAFA)
  • Raffles Institution, ACS(I) and Milliennia Institute have barrier free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)[43]
  • Disability Support Officers @ Special Education Needs (SEN) Support Offices
    • Available at each publicly-funded university, polytechnic and Institute of Technical Education (ITE) College
    • Provides holistic support for students with special educational needs, including in-class learning assistance and access arrangements.
  • There are also more than 1,500 polytechnic and ITE staff trained in basic SEN awareness and support. All polytechnic and ITE academic staff will be trained similarly over the next five years.[44]
Special Student Care Centres
  • Provides subsidised before and after school care services for students with special needs aged 7 to 18
  • MINDS' First Special Student Care Centre to open in 2019
Community Educational Support Services
Financial & Transport Support
  • High transport costs[46]
    • Some students with disabilities have physical impairments which make independent utilisation of public transport problematic for them
    • Parent availability to transport students is not always possible, particularly where both parents work
    • Costs still high for lower-income people with disabilities

Need for schools to provide reasonable accommodations to students with special educational needs

  • A handful of specialised mainstream primary and secondary schools have facilities and support for those with sensory, physical and learning disabilities; however, educators in mainstream schools generally lack the ability to engage meaningfully with students with special needs, their students might discriminate or even engage in bullying, and their parents may even resent having a special needs child in proximity
  • Tertiary institutions have special education needs units, disability support offices or equivalent, though these services tend to be unstructured and unsystematic

STATISTICS

  • 7 in 10 Singaporeans support the idea of inclusive education , but only 1 in 10 Singaporeans is sure about how to interact with a child with special needs[47]
  • 64% of Singaporeans are willing to share public spaces with disabled children, but not interact with them[47]
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Mainstream Primary Schools
  • Deaf/Hearing Impairment
    • Mayflower Primary School
  • Physical Disabilities
    • 57 primary schools have barrier-free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)
  • Learning Disabilities
    • DAS’ Main Literacy Programme
    • School-based Dyslexia Remediation (SDR) Programme
  • Not all mainstream primary schools are fully accessible. Few mainstream schools offer facilities for students with sensory impairments (VI/HI).
  • Primary school teachers often feel overwhelmed and ill-prepared to handle too many children with special needs and/or disabilities in a large class.[48]
  • Mainstream educators and students lack understanding of how to engage with people with disabilities without ignorance, pity or aggression[49] 
    • Especially those without prior contact with PWDs or training in special needs [50]
Mainstream Secondary Schools
  • Deaf/Hearing Impairment
    • Beatty Secondary School (Signing)
    • Outram Secondary School (Oral)
    • St Anthony’s Canossian Secondary School (Oral)
  • Visual Impairment
    • Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School
    • Bedok South Secondary School
    • Dunearn Secondary School
  • Physical Disabilities
    • 34 secondary schools have barrier free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)
  • Learning Disabilities
    • DAS’ Main Literacy Programme
    • School-based Dyslexia Remediation (SDR) Programme
  • Not all mainstream secondary schools are fully accessible to all disability types
  • Mainstream educators and students lack understanding of how to engage with people with disabilities without ignorance, pity or aggression[49] 
Shadow Teachers
  • Provides shadow support to a student with special education needs in mainstream school settings (kindergartens and primary, secondary and international schools)[51]
  • Inclusion Therapy
Special Education (SPED) Schools
  • Serve students from 7-21 years of age
  • 19 SPED Schools funded by the government as of January 2018[41] , by APSN, Metta, PCS, MINDS, AWWA, Rainbow Centre, CPAS, ARC, AA, SAMH, Canossian Daughters and SAVH
  • Guided by the SPED Curriculum Framework
  • Limited number of SPED schools, with long waiting lists up to two years[42].
    • MOE has said that parents contribute to longer wait lists and waiting times for admission by fixating on a single school
  • Lack of pathways for SPED students to enter/re-enter the mainstream education system, or to access the mainstream curricula (e.g., Physical Education, Home Economics).
    • Some argue that the divergence of the SPED curricula right from the start makes it impractical to re-join the mainstream education format
Satellite Partnerships
  • Provide opportunities for integration between SPED and mainstream school students[52]
  • 16 SPED schools have been involved as of 2014[53]
  • MSF is considerning Recommendation 6 of EM3: To enhance opportunities for interaction between mainstream and SPED students in Recommendation 6, with satellite partnerships as a good model[3]
Tertiary Institutions (Polys/ITEs/JCs/CI/Universities & Lasalle/NAFA)
  • Raffles Institution, ACS(I) and Milliennia Institute have barrier free accessibility (e.g., ramp and lifts for wheelchair users or those with limited mobility, wheelchair accessible toilets)[43]
  • Disability Support Officers @ Special Education Needs (SEN) Support Offices
    • Available at each publicly-funded university, polytechnic and Institute of Technical Education (ITE) College
    • Provides holistic support for students with special educational needs, including in-class learning assistance and access arrangements.
  • There are also more than 1,500 polytechnic and ITE staff trained in basic SEN awareness and support. All polytechnic and ITE academic staff will be trained similarly over the next five years.[44]
  • Disability services in Singapore’s Higher Education sector tend to vary in terms of structure and consistency, and is in need of alignment across IHLs
ITE's Buddy’IN
  • Co-curricular activity which brings students of different abilities together[54]

Need for students to be prepared for work and life

  • Vocational training in SPED is structured with a Framework for Vocational Education in place, but it tends to under-emphasise soft skills required for employment, and has not kept up to date with automation and other market developments.
  • While SPED graduates typically learn how to be independent, those with developmental disabilities have a harder time retaining ADL skills upon exiting school. Newer living skills are also increasingly pertinent in a digital age, such as digital literacy and cyber-wellness.
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Special Education (SPED) Schools
  • Serve students from 7-21 years of age
  • 19 SPED Schools funded by the government as of January 2018[41] , by APSN, Metta, PCS, MINDS, AWWA, Rainbow Centre, CPAS, ARC, AA, SAMH, Canossian Daughters and SAVH
  • Guided by the SPED Curriculum Framework
  • Level of vocational skill training across SPED schools is uneven[3]
  • The SPED curriculum over-emphasises the acquisition of hard skills as opposed to soft, employability skills, e.g., attending an interview, anger management, effective communication with co-workers
  • The SPED curriculum has not sufficiently incorporated topics on digital media literacy (e.g., Facebook, Whatsapp, cyberwellness) necessary for daily living
    • Dispute: "Cyberwellness is addressed among the SPED schools, and MOE Special Education Division has been working on this for the past 2 years."
  • Need to help daily living skills and activities of daily living be retained even after exiting school
    • This is more applicable to people with developmental disabilities who are in DACs, to help increase independence and possibly reduce demand for disability homes in the future.
  • MSF is considering Recommendation 5 of EM3: To place greater focus on life skills in the SPED curriculum[3]
  • Society Staples is working on a digital literacy course for people with developmental disabilities, funded by the LearnSG Seed Fund
  • Cyber Wellness Toolkit for Special Needs Students[55]
School-to-Work (S2W) Transition Programme
  • Jointly launched by MSF, MOE and SG Enable in 2014
  • Students with the potential to work are referred by SPED schools to SG Enable, who matches them to job training; students receive on-site job training from job coaches for up to one year after graduation leading to employment
  • EM3 = plans to scale the programme up
Vocational Certification Programmes
  • Metta School
    • Students who successfully complete the programme will receive the Institute of Technical Education Skills Certificate (ISC).
  • APSN Delta Senior School
    • Students who successfully complete the programme will receive the Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ).
  • Students who successfully attain the ISC or WSQ may apply for jobs in the open market or attend further advanced training (e.g., at ITEs to pursue the National ITE Certificate (NITEC) as long as they meet course pre-requisites)
  • Vocational training provided by SPED schools has not kept up with changing job market. Along with automation and digitalisation there is an increasing emphasis on specialist skills such as accounting, graphic design, teaching and administrative work, crowding out simple manual jobs[20]
    • SPD book binding orders and restoration services plunged by about 40% since 2010[56]
    • Bizlink lost contracts for printing and packing of red packets because businesses are outsourcing jobs to other countries in the region[56]
  • Review vocational training to ensure that skills and knowledge taught meet the changing needs of the job market

EMPLOYMENT

Aspire to an “Inclusive workplace”, which should include:

- Fair recruitment and procurement practices

- Policies concerning equality and human rights, working conditions, dignity at work, employee welfare are in place

- Reasonable accommodation made by employers: “an accommodation is defined as any change in work environment or processes to allow an employee with disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities. As such, accommodations can be broadly categorised into either job or workplace accommodation. Examples of job accommodation include job trial, part time employment, flexible working hours and telecommuting. Workplace accommodation addresses the accessibility of the compound or facility. These accommodations are relevant not only to persons with disabilities, but also to other employees as well. Amongst other benefits, reasonable accommodations can lead to employee retention.”[file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/SG-Enable-Online-HRM-Series-Recruitment-and-Hiring.pdf SG Enable Online HRM Series]

- A welcoming workplace culture: “Inclusion goes beyond merely having a mix of employees with different demographics and backgrounds in the workplace. It is about appreciating employees for the unique value they bring to the workplace, and leveraging on those differences to add value to the organisation so that both the person and the organisation can flourish.” (TAFEP’s Creating an Inclusive Workplace toolkit


"Inclusive workplaces are rare in Singapore, where persons with disabilities (PWDs) comprise just 0.55 per cent of the resident labour force. They are mainly employed in the hospitality, food and beverage, wholesale and retail, and administrative support sectors" (ST 1 Oct 2017)


Need to be job ready

How 'job ready' is understood

  • To obtain vocational/technical, soft and employability skills
  • For those with acquired disabilities: To be in good psychosocial health, mindset and adjusted expectations
  • To be proactive in searching for jobs
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Vocational Training in SPED Schools
School-to-Work Transition Programme (S2W)
  • Begins in the year of graduation and lasts for up to a year after
  • Students with the potential to work identified by SG Enable and schools and matched to job training 
  • 24 in 30 students who joined S2W found a job, with 20 remaining employed for at least 6 months[57]
  • EM3 has taken note of this: To scale up S2W programme so that more SPED school students can participate[3]
Sheltered Workshops
  • Offers employment or vocational training to adults with disabilities who do not possess the competencies or skills for open employment, allowing them to practice in jobs or tasks where the processes are either simple or broken down into simpler steps.
  • 8 workshops as of 13 August 2018
SPD Employment Support Programme
IHL Internship Programme
Rise Mentorship Programme
ABLE Day Rehabilitation Programme

Existing Resources

-Employment Support Programme Training (SPD - 146 clients. Provides training places to help increase employability of job seekers withd isabilities)

-Sheltered Workshops also provide vocational training

-Minds regularly organises internships in industries as diverse as laundromats, supermarkets, hardware shops and car wash facilities in petrol stations for its clients starting from the age of about 16.By around age 19, some PWDs can be guided towards working in sheltered workshops that cater to them, doing work such as packing, retail, baking and making crafts. Others are placed in the general labour market, where they are mentored and supported by job coaches from Minds who ensure that they are not stressed in their new environment or check that they are able to take public transport to work. (ST 1 Oct 2017).

Gaps and Their Causes


Potential Solutions


Need for diverse job offerings that accommodate the different preferences, requirements and circumstances of PWDs and the concerns of their caregivers

[should the need statement include'preference' since most people don't get the luxury of only taking jobs they like?]


Existing Resources

- Employment placement services (SG Enable, SPD, Autism Resource Centre, MINDS)

- Open Door Job Portal by SGEnable

- Job club of IMH

- Sheltered Workshop ( SPD - 126 clients)

-Employment Support Programme ( Job placement and Job Support Programme, SPD - 500 clients)

Gaps and Their Causes

- PWDs pigeonholed into certain job roles: hospitality, food & beverages, customer service; Mostly low-skilled jobs e.g. dish collector, cleaner, somewhat higher skilled jobs in offices are at entry level e.g. receptionist [Need Data]

- Companies and their HR may not be ‘diversity ready’? [Need Evidence]

Possible Solutions

- Job placement and support services can be linked to mainstream job agencies to access larger network of potential employers [Specify how?]

- Use quota system for hiring, but only applicable to large companies or government agencies (ST 6 Aug 2016)

- vayable can allow tours to be provided by people with disabilities


Need for information on available job opportunities for persons with disabilities

Existing Resources

- Job Search: Open Door Job Portal

- Employment placement services (SG Enable is the focal point, but services provided by SPD, Autism Resource Centre and MINDS)

Gaps and Their Causes

- Anecdotal evidence that VWOs do not share full range of job options but pre-select choices for their clients [Source?]


Possible Solutions



Need for employers to understand the capabilities of PWDs and be willing to hire

- As of December 2015, 4,500 employers received subsidies from the Special Employment Credit scheme for hiring 5,700 disabled workers. ARC president Denise Phua said more employers are willing to employ the disabled due to the tight labour market (ST 19 Apr 2016)

- The Association for Persons with Special Needs (APSN) had 35 companies hiring its clients last year, up from 25 the year before. The number of companies hiring clients of the Autism Resource Centre (ARC) grew from four in 2012, to nine last year. Uniqlo started hiring intellectually disabled employees in 2012, and has 20 such workers in its 16 outlets here. Starbucks hired six clients from ARC for its 100th store here, which opened at the Fullerton Waterboat House two months ago. It has committed to have ARC clients form at least 25 per cent of the staff at the store.(ST 19 Apr 2016)

Study by Kathy Charmaz on workplace disclosures, for reference

Existing Resources

- Inclusive Business Forum - Jointly organised by SG Enable and the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (See also Business Times Article)

- Enabling Employer’s Network

- Periodic public education campaigns such as ‘More Than Dis’ campaign led by a trio of undergraduates from NTU.

- Special Employment Credit scheme: Government pays up to 16 per cent of the salary of workers with physical or intellectual disabilities, for those earning up to $4,000 a month (ST 19 Apr 2016) See also

Gaps and Their Causes

- Inclusive workplaces are rare in Singapore, where persons with disabilities (PWDs) comprise just 0.55 per cent of the resident labour force. They are mainly employed in the hospitality, food and beverage, wholesale and retail, and administrative support sectors (ST 1 Oct 2017)

- Employer’s misconceptions and false assumptions about the abilities of those with disabilities (only a handful of them are educated in SPED schools and do not have the necessary skills and credentials to obtain high-wage, high-skill jobs) [Need evidence]

- Limited effectiveness because it is hard to change employer attitude: Mr Ong Peng Kai, 24, who has cerebral palsy, felt this sentiment first-hand when he tried to find a job last year. "I studied maths and economics at university so I sent out about 30 resumes to banks, investment and insurance companies but none of them got back to me," said Mr Ong, who was eventually hired by NCSS as an assistant manager. The president of the Disabled People's Association, Mr Nicholas Aw, said the campaign should target the young more. "Such educational campaigns will help but how much they can help is a question mark. Sometimes people are aware but they are just not walking the talk," he said. (ST 3 Jun 2016)


Possible Solutions

- Public education campaigns highlighting the strengths and abilities of those with disabilities and more career fairs for PWDs



Need for persons with disabilities to be work ready

Existing Resources

- Career coaching and guidance SG Enable + VWO Vocational assessment (ARC, SPD, MINDS) SG Enable’s iEnable provides emotional support and prepare clients for job interviews.

- SPD’s Transitional Programme for people with acquired disabilities

- Workfare Training Support scheme

- Open Door Programme (Training grants)

- Skillsfuture initiative

- SPED vocational training programmes

Gaps and Their Causes

- As of August 24, 2015, SPD Transitional Programme has taken in 63 clients and matched nine to jobs [source?]

Possible Solutions



Need for accessible work environment

Existing Resources

Universal Design

Assistive Technology Fund

Open Door Programme


Gaps and Their Causes

Using principles of universal design, the BCA has improved accessibility of our built environment. But Richard Kuppusamy, a wheelchair user, commented that the layout in the BCA code is more conducive to assistants of persons with disabilities, rather than for more independent users who do not need help.

Even with the subsidies, technology aids are costly for persons with disabilities; those from low-middle income households do not qualify for a subsidy after means-testing.

Sometimes the subsidy is not enough to cover a person’s assistive technology needs over a lifetime.


Possible Solutions

increase the means testing of Assistive Technology Fund to cover more persons with disabilities from lower-middle income households



Need for fair recruitment and procurement practices and opportunities for career progression, including employment rights

Existing Resources

- Employment Act

- TAFEP - Tripartite Alliance for Fair & Progressive Employment Practices (made up of SNEF, NTUC, MOM) Provides Resources and Guidelines on Fair Employment Practices

- Signed UNCRPD


- Participatory research project on employment discrimination by DPA (ST 31 Oct 2016)

Gaps and Their Causes

- Employment Act - no legal recourse for offenders

- TAFEP Guidelines is not strictly binding; lack bite; no legal recourse;

- Government favours promotional and educational approach; Laws may adversely affect businesses; Government wants to avoid market rigidity. Government’s view: kindness and compassion cannot be legislated. Nor can they be enforced. It follows, then, that moral suasion, raising public awareness and promoting civic consciousness are more realistic ways to bring about change. (TODAY 3 Dec 2013)

- Legislation is the way to change mindsets and attitudes because people are apathetic (ST 16 Nov 2013)

- Possible that many companies, including government agencies and statutory boards, continue to ask in their application forms if a job candidate has any physical or mental disabilities. (Forum ST 13 Aug 2016)

Possible Solutions

- Anti-discrimination laws and/or ombudsman body together with public education. [Existing legislation we can study, adapt and adopt from are the Americans with Disabilities Act, the United Kingdom’s Equality Act and Australia’s Disability Discrimination Act, which are regarded as being the gold standard. (Alvan Yap)]

- Nicholas Aw: "Mindsets are hard to change so we need to go into the schools and start with the young because they are more open and receptive." (ST 3 Jun 2016)


Need for ongoing work support

Existing Resources

Open Door Programme (SGEnable)

Inclusion fundamentals workshop for employers (DPA)

Integrated Community Space (Enabling Village)

Special Employment Credit (See https://www.sec.gov.sg/Pages/More-Information-on-SEC.aspx)

Workfare Income Supplement

Transition Programme for Employment (SPD - 40 clients, stroke or spinal cord injuries to return to mainstream employment)

Gaps and Their Causes

- “140 companies have applied for the fund, with an average claim of $3,000. About 650 persons with disabilities have been placed in jobs, including those supported under the initiative.” There is not a high level of awareness by employers of available schemes or they do not tap onto the schemes because they think it’s complicated and cumbersome

- HR is diversity ready? (e.g. HR side should have a policy to answer such queries and address any issues arising from having a staff with disability)

- low take-up rate? (need statistics)


Possible Solutions

Outreach programs to familiarise public with the schemes



CAREGIVER SUPPORT

Caregivers

  • Those who provide care to a person requiring support due to age, disability, illness or special needs
  • Usually family members, but can also be friends or foreign domestic workers
  • Can be broadly categorised into two groups: (i) Professional caregivers which include doctors, nurses, social workers, and (ii) Family caregivers, which include spouses, children, grandchildren, siblings and foreign domestic workers hired by their families, family caregivers are focused upon here.
  • Special note to two groups of family caregivers: Elderly caregivers caring for disabled adult children, disabled people playing caregiver roles
    • See The Survey on Informal Caregiving by MCYS
      • 20% of family caregivers providing care to elderly persons aged 75 years and above with functional limitations are themselves above the age of 65.
    • See A Profile of Older Family Caregivers by CARE and Duke-NUS
      • Older family caregivers are in declining health themselves but spend long hours (up to 60 hours per week) caring for their family member. More than half of family caregivers up to the age of retirement (55-65 years) are juggling long hours of both formal employment and caregiving.
      • More than half of family caregivers aged 70-74 years do not receive help from anyone else to care for their family member
      • Well beyond the retirement age, family caregivers are spending 50 to 60 hours per week caring for their older family member.

STATISTICS

  • An estimated 210,000 people aged 18 to 69 provide care to a family member or peer[58].
  • Caregivers are ageing and are becoming less and less able to care for their disabled kin; 70% of caregivers in Singapore (including those who care for the elderly and disabled) are above 40; 10% are between 60 and 69 years of age[59].

Refer to Caregiving in Singapore (Sep 2011) for more statistics on the profile of informal caregivers in the Singapore population and the key characteristics of caregivers and care recipients. Some statistics:

  • 37% of caregivers reported that they had been providing care to their care recipients for over a decade. 
  • On average, caregivers provided around 6.8 hours of care per day in a typical week
  • Close to 74% of caregivers were employed.
  • About 80% of caregivers received some form of support, be it from other family members (70%) and/or domestic helpers (14%). 21% of caregivers reported being the sole caregiver

Need for respite care

  • Caregivers continue to be concerned about the need for respite care[3]
  • Caregivers reported a lack of opportunity for respite, especially when care recipients require round-the-clock care[60]

STATISTICS

  • Over 1,600 people have tapped on respite services offered at selected day care centres and nursing homes. Usage of these respite services has increased by at least 50% between 2015 and 2017. [61]
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Home Based Care Services
  • Provides alternative care support for adults with disabilities, with the aim of keeping them in the community for as long as possible.
  • Delivers services such as therapy, personal hygiene care, housekeeping and medication reminders.
  • 2 service providers as of 01 July 2018 - AWWA and MINDS
  • Caregivers reported a lack of opportunity for respite, especially when care recipients require round-the-clock care[60]
  • To consider commercialising caregiving (e.g. piecemeal/gig caregiving services)
    • In light of an ageing population, decreasing family sizes and caregiver fatigue
    • Can also consider tapping on people who live in the neighbourhood/not working with free pockets of time to provide paid, temporary caregiving services, with financial remunerations and incentives
    • Examples from the eldercare space: Homage, Jaga-Me, Caregiver Asia, Active Global
Drop-in Disability Programme
  • Provides social, recreational and/or therapeutic training activities for persons with disabilities for a few days a week up to 9 hours
  • 4 DDPs provided by Thye Hua Kwan Moral Charities as of 01 July 2018
Day Activity Centres
  • Community-based facilities that provide care and skills training to persons with disabilities aged 16 and above.
  • 30 DACs as of 11 Sep 2018
Children Disability Homes (Short-Term Respite)
  • Provides long-term residential care, but also short-term respite care for those whose families are unable to provide care temporarily.
  • 3 homes provide respite care services as of 13 August 2018
Adult Disability Homes (Short-Term Respite)
  • Provides long-term residential care, but also short-term respite care for adults with disabilities whose caregivers are temporarily unable to provide care for them.
  • 8 homes provide respite care services as of July 2018
Respite services offered at selected day care centres and nursing homes under the ambit of AIC
  • AIC page and E-Care Locator here.
One Child One Skill
  • A volunteer project that sends pairs of tertiary students to homes to teach autistic children a skill over 8 one or one-and-a-half-hour sessions
  • Parents identify skills that they would like their autistic children to learn and volunteers choose the child they teach based on the stated skills and location.
  • Caregivers also obtain respite

Need for physical health necessary to carry out caregiving

EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
  • Trends[60]
    • Ageing caregivers who need to care for disabled children[62] -
    • Disabled caregivers who perform caregiving, such as for ageing parents with medical issues
    • See also A Profile of Older Family Caregivers by CARE and Duke-NUS
  • Provision of caregiving leave or time-off, to rest or bring care recipients for medical appointments[63]

Need for psychosocial health

  • Caregivers expressed the concern that they require self-care[3]
  • Stress from caregiving, along with increased time spent on care work affects caregivers' personal health and well-being[3]
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Community Counselling/Emotional Support Services
  • 14 agencies provide these services as of 02 August 2018
  • EM3 (Recommendation 13)
    • To expand the continuum of support and respite options, including the implementation of caregiving leave, and to build trust between caregivers and formal respite services
    • Ease access to counselling services, such as counsellors, social workers or volunteers - be it coming to terms with diagnoses of disabilities or assistance with job placement, social assistance and marriage counselling
    • Create more opportunities for caregivers to meet each other as a source of informal support, such as leveraging existing support networks to reach out further
    • For service providers to take family relationships into consideration, as family dynamics are affected if a member has a disability. This could mean designing
Community Support Groups
  • 13 agencies provide these services as of 02 August 2018
Caregiver Activities in the Community
  • 14 agencies provide these services as of 02 August 2018
Caregiving Welfare Association - Caregiver Counselling Services
  • For family caregivers providing care for a senior with physical or mental disabilities

Need for financial support

EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Caregivers Training Grant
  • $200 annual subsidy for caregivers, per care recipient, every financial year, to attend training
Foreign Domestic Worker Grant
  • $120 monthly cash payment given to families who need to hire a Foreign Domestic Worker to care for loved ones who require permanent assistance with three or more Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
  • Even after subsidies, the remaining cost to hire an FDW is still more than many low-income families can afford[60]
  • Employers must be of sufficient mental capacity to hire an FDW, and cannot have a disability that impairs mental capacity to this degree[60][64]
  • EM3 (Recommendation 13): To expand the criteria for the FDW Grant to better cater to disabled people who are physically able to perform ADLs, but who may not have the cognitive ability to perform ADLs or have behavioural challenges that require additional support
Foreign Domestic Worker Levy Concession
  • Lets families pay a monthly foreign domestic worker levy of just $60, instead of $265
Community Long Term Care / Financial Planning Services
  • 4 agencies provide these services as of 02 August 2018
Additional Financial Support for Care Recipients with Disabilities

Need for future care planning

  • Caregivers are worried about their future inability to care for their loved ones with disabilities[3]
  • Caregivers of children with special needs are also concerned about the post-18 trajectory
EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Assisted Deputyship Application Programme (ADAP)
  • Helps parents of graduating cohorts in Special Education (SPED) schools apply to Court to be deputies for their child, so that they can continue to make legal decisions for their child after he or she turns 21
  • EM3 (Recommendation 14)
    • To raise awareness of importance of legal, financial and care planning, and services.
      • SNTC to continue expanding outreach to caregivers, and consider partnering agencies providing direct services to disabled people for more integrated and holistic support to caregivers
      • Service providers, including the Office of the Public Guardian and Law Society, to educate caregivers on legal/financial matters such as applying for deputyship
    • To simplify deputyship and Lasting Power of Attorney processes for caregivers
      • MINDS is heading a pilot to simplify deputyship applications for caregivers of graduating SPED students
    • To create a system of support at caregivers' natural touchpoints, that would help them in future care planning such as identifying the next caregiver and transitioning of the caregiver role when the time comes, and including documenting and passing on caregiving knowledge.
  • Enable disabled care recipients to make more independent decisions for themselves for the future, something which caregivers tend to do. Depending on the disability type and functioning level, some caregivers can unintentionally prevent their care recipients from learning useful independent living skills through mollycoddling.
Special Needs Trust Company (SNTC) Trust
  • Allows family members to set aside money and assets in SNTC accounts, and aims to safeguard these assets to enhance the beneficiary's financial security and well-being
  • 447 SNTC accounts have been opened, out of 117,000 estimated people who might require it (ST 29 Mar 2017)
  • While caregivers acknowledged that SNTC was a good start, they were worried about the lack of options for future care needs and planning, beyond placing their loved ones in Adult Disability Homes[3]
Special Needs Savings Scheme
  • Enables parents to set aside CPF savings for the long term care of children with special needs
  • Parents may nominate their loved one with special needs to receive a regular stream of fixed pay-outs upon the parent’s demise.

Need for skills and information to do caregiving

EXISTING RESOURCES GAPS AND THEIR CAUSES POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Post-Diagnostic Touchpoints

(e.g., hospitals, medical personnel)

  • For caregivers of children diagnosed with disabilities, touchpoints are poorly equipped in advising parents on where to obtain reliable help during the post-diagnostic phase
  • Caregivers need to understand the trajectory of caring – what to expect, anxieties and challenges, expectations as well as future planning.
  • Recommendations from EM3 that MSF will consider[3]
    • Recommendation 3, Strategic Direction 1: Improve transition management
      • For newly-diagnosed cases, to set up an agency to provide case referral, care planning and advisory services, and to facilitate smooth handover of information to other agencies
      • Includes developing a standardised case management tool between primary support agency and other service providers
Neurodivercitysg.com
SG Enable
  • Currently provides the most comprehensive information covering financial assistance, hospital and training support
  • Caregiver Service Matrix caa 02 August 2018
  • Knowledge and level of assistance received by caregivers differ depending on the experience and knowledge of providers they meet[10]
  • Some caregivers deny that children have special needs
  • Some caregivers reject support services for those in their charge.[65]
  • Some courses that caregivers are interested in attending are only open to social service professionals[3]
  • Especially for low-income families, some programmes are unaffordable due to high costs of service and comparatively low levels of subsidies[10]
  • EM3 (Recommendation 13)
    • For social service agencies to have a good understanding of community resources available for advisory and referral; one method is a one-stop portal to provide information on service, caregiving, self-care assistive technology and well-being[3]
    • Hub-and-spoke model for caregiver support, instead of having caregivers be supported through services accessed by care recipients. NCSS to pilot the model together with service providers.
  • Budget 2017 had announced that a Disability Caregiver Support Centre would be set up to provide information, planned respite, training and peer support groups, and work with VWOs to pilot programmes for caregivers of newly diagnosed people with disabilities[66]
    • Caregivers' Space @ Enabling Village by end-2018?[67]
  • To assign one case worker for each PWD, for his/her entire lifetime[10]
  • To integrate various secondary caregivers such as social workers and medical personnel with primary caregivers[10]
Caregivers Alliance
  • Provides information, referrals, skills training and other support services
Caregiver Training Courses by VWOs and KKH/NUH
  • Under the Caregiver Service Matrix, caregiver training and education are provided by 17 organisations as of 02 August 2018
  • Training on strengths-based approaches? - Helping parents and caregivers to support their children/wards in building strengths and abilities as opposed to focussing on limitations and disabilities.
  • Ask caregivers themselves how they would like to be supported, in relation to the relevance, usefulness and utilisation of training courses and care services[63]
  • EM3 (Recommendation 13):
    • To provide more and affordable courses (e.g., higher level training), and modes of training that are accessible to caregivers; for NCSS and MSF to work with relevant agencies to improve coordination and outreach to caregivers
    • For service providers to make training options aware to caregivers
Handbooks

SOCIAL INCLUSION

Need for children with special needs to be part of community outside of school

According to a Lien Foundation survey in 2016, of the 835 parents of special needs children who were surveyed, four in 10 think their children spend too little time in the community outside of school.Nearly half of those surveyed said their children do not have friends without disabilities (ST 2 Oct 2017)


Need for public to emphatically understand the circumstances PWDs face and know how to support and interact with them

Existing Resources

Society Staples

A social enterprise that uses mass engagement platforms to educate public about experiences of people with disabilities; provides team building services for corporates: eg experiencing blindness, learning sign language etc.

https://www.societystaples.com.sg

Purple Parade

http://www.purpleparade.sg/

See the True Me

http://seethetrueme.sg/

Buddy'IN, a programme aimed at socially integrating graduating students from special education schools with their peers from institutes of higher learning, through semi-structured social activities and sessions.(ST 17 Jun 2016)

December 3rd, 2017, the International Day of People with Disabilities -AbleThrive is hosting meetups around the world for people with disabilities, their families and allies to come together

Lien Centre for Social Innovation Workshop on Inclusion - Allyship 101

https://lcsi.smu.edu.sg/programmes/changelab/allyship-101

Gaps and Their Causes

For 'See the True Me' there is a question about the reach of these campaigns because many at a forum, many from disability sector have not seen or heard about it

Invisible disabilities (learning disorders, hearing impairment) are less obvious, and therefore the public may not understand their behaviors and support may be less forthcoming (ST 28 May 2016)

Mr Andrew Soh, assistant director at Down Syndrome Association, said public attitudes are less favourable towards people with autism and intellectual impairments, compared with those with physical disabilities, because people fear what they cannot see. "People can't tell how serious their disability is and don't know what to say or how to help them," he said.(ST 3 Jun 2016)

Possible Solutions



EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

MIND’s keyword signing as total communication

—�-

Need for mobility and access to transportation

Existing Resources Transportation subsidies:

Taxi Subsidy Scheme

VWO subsidy scheme

Public Transport Concession Scheme for Persons with Disabilities

Assistive devices for drivers with disabilities (ST 24 Oct 2016)

Accessible public transportation:

UberAssist Channel News Asia report

Wheelchair accessible taxis see taxisingapore.com and LTA accessibility push

Wheelchair Accessible Buses (About 80% of buses are wheelchair accessible, and LTA aims for 100% coverage by 2020).

Disabled facilities at MRT stations and in trains (More than 80% of MRT stations have at least two barrier free access routes).


Accommodation for drivers with disabilities:

Car Park Label Scheme for Persons with Physical Disabilities

SPD provides training for Tower Transit bus drivers how to help commuters with disabilities (ST 28 Apr 2016)

Gaps and Their Causes

Transportation costs, while subsidised, are still high for lower income PWDs

Cheaper transport options such as buses and trains are either too crowded for wheelchair users or other persons with disabilities OR there are service issues, such as some unprofessional or even discriminatory drivers or passengers.

Open prams used by caregivers now allowed on public buses, but not all bus drivers realise this yet (ST 2 Oct 2016)

Possible Solutions



Need for access to digital media

Existing Resources


Gaps and Their Causes


Potential Solutions

-Web Accessibility Guidelines https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

-Accessibility reviews of the web https://www.abilitynet.org.uk/

---

Need for access to leisure and recreational activities

Existing Resources

ActiveSG is promoting disability sports. Various sports have been adapted for them. In Singapore, the range of sports for people with disabilities includes handcyling, swimming, table tennis and boccia, a ball game that can be played by wheelchair-users with motor-skill impairment (ST 27 Sep 2016)

The inclusive playgrounds in Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park and Ghim Moh and the complementary Children in Action programme (ST 17 Jun 2016)

Running Hour A sports co-operative that promotes integration of persons with special needs through running. We have members who are mildly intellectually challenged, physically challenged and visually challenged joining us to keep fit. We welcome anyone passionate about running to join us as running guides.

"Inclusive" art workshop to encourage interaction between children with and without special needs. Run by Superhero Me, a non-governmental organisation that runs art programmes for children (ST 2 Oct 2017).

Free entry for people with disabilities and caregivers to (special exhibitions of) NHB museums (ST 15 April 2018 “Free entry for people with disabilities”)


Gaps and Their Causes

Sports take-up rate among people with disabilities remains low, though they stand to benefit more than able-bodied people by being active(ST 27 Sep 2016)

Reasons why people with disabilities may shun sports:(ST 27 Sep 2016) •Difficulty in getting transport to the sports facilities. •Cost of specialised equipment and transporting them. •Struggles with the basics of daily life that push the thought of exercise into the background. •Depending on volunteers to help out, such as transferring the person with disability from a normal wheelchair to a racing wheelchair. •A tendency to withdraw from society and an unwillingness to leave the house for various reasons. •Logistics. For instance, when a wheelchair racer travels overseas for races, he has to take along a special racing wheelchair, a regular wheelchair for moving around and a commode chair. •There may also be psychological factors such as confidence, self image issues and a self-perceived inability to do sports.

Lack of opportunities to prove themselves ;being overprotective could limit their exposure, hindering their ability to lead a fulfilling and independent life (CNA 21 Sep 2017)

Possible Solutions

There should be regular disability sports sessions in all special education schools and organisations for the disabled (ST 27 Sep 2016)

Collectively refrain from assuming what PWDs can or cannot do, never mind their condition. (CNA 21 Sep 2017)


Need opportunities to give back to society

Existing Resources SPD Youth Development Programme - Trained and mentored youths with disabilities to enable them to champion social causes and give back to the society.

Resource Directory

Voluntary Welfare Organisations

APSN

http://www.apsn.org.sg/

Down Syndrome Association (Singapore)

http://www.downsyndrome-singapore.org/

founded in 1995 by parents, has close to 1000 members, of which over 300 are persons with Down syndrome Operates a DSA Thriftshop at Telok Blangah Crescent

MINDS

http://www.minds.org.sg/

Muscular Dystrophy Association of Singapore (MDAS)

http://www.mdas.org.sg/

SPD

http://www.spd.org.sg/

Bizlink

http://www.bizlink.org.sg/ training and employment for people with disabilities One of Bizlink's biggest businesses is providing cleaning teams to other companies. These teams are made up of able-bodied workers and those with disabilities (ST 1 Oct 2017).

Special education schools SPED

Rainbow Centre

Social Enterprises that provide services for people with disabilities

Olive Tree Development Centre

http://olive-tree.sg/

Social Enterprises or Businesses that hire people with disability

Dignity Kitchen

http://dignitykitchen.sg/

Personalised Love

https://www.personalisedlove.com/

SEOciety

http://www.ourseociety.com/

Social Food Inc

https://www.facebook.com/pg/socialfoodinc/about/

Incorporated in 2013, Social Food Inc. Pte Ltd is an established Halal-certified food caterer that provide people with disabilities with employment training

Started by Sim Sin Sin. See Case Study of Social Food Inc

WISE Enterprise

https://www.wise-enterprise.sg/

Adrenalin

http://adrenalin.com.sg/

Six of the 25 workers at Adrenalin have disabilities and other special needs. Staff members include two deaf persons, an employee who uses a wheelchair and people recovering from mental illness (ST 1 Oct 2017).

Holiday Inn Singapore

Holiday Inn Singapore Orchard City Centre hotel in Cavenagh Road - 12 per cent of the more than 200 staff are PWDs, staff adjust to the different ways of communication of some PWD employees, some of whom have intellectual disabilities or autism (ST 1 Oct 2017). .

Han's Group

Han's Group, about 50 employees, or 10 per cent of its workforce, are persons with disabilities (ST 1 Oct 2017).

Disabled People's Organisations

Disabled People's Association

http://www.dpa.org.sg/

Friends of the Disabled Society

https://www.fds.org.sg/

Government Agencies

MSF Disability Division

https://app.msf.gov.sg/About-MSF/Our-People/Divisions-at-MSF/Social-Development-and-Support/Disability-Division

NCSS Disability Services

SGEnable

https://www.sgenable.sg

Scholarships and Bursaries

Dare to Dream

The scholarship provides special needs persons, who are successful in gaining entry into a diploma programme at the LaSalle College of the Arts, with funding of fees for the full duration of the diploma programme at the College. Dare To Dream

International

World institute on Disability https://wid.org/

References

  1. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/big-read-special-needs-children-pre-school-not-given-0
  2. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/more-preschoolers-diagnosed-developmental-issues
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 https://www.msf.gov.sg/policies/Disabilities-and-Special-Needs/Documents/Enabling%20Masterplan%203%20(revised%2013%20Jan%202017).pdf
  4. https://www.msf.gov.sg/policies/International-Conventions/Documents/Singapore%20CRPD%20Report%20-%20final.pdf
  5. https://www.sgenable.sg/uploads/EIPIC%20Service%20Matrix.pdf
  6. http://lienfoundation.org/sites/default/files/Inclusive%20Survey%20Part%202%20-%20Press%20Release%20Lien%20Fdn%20Final%5B1%5D.pdf
  7. https://www.msf.gov.sg/policies/International-Conventions/Documents/Singapore%20CRPD%20Report%20-%20final.pdf
  8. https://www.msf.gov.sg/media-room/Pages/Clarifications-on-EIPIC.aspx
  9. http://www.spd.org.sg/upload/SPD%20FY1617%20Annual%20Report.pdf
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 National Volunteer and Philanthropy Centre (NVPC). (2017). Issues faced by people with disabilities in Singapore. Retrieved from https://www.nvpc.org.sg/resources/report-on-issues-faced-by-people-with-disabilities-in-singapore
  11. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/big-read-special-needs-children-pre-school-not-given-0
  12. 12.0 12.1 Lien Foundation Study on Early Intervention Professionals. http://www.lienfoundation.org/sites/default/files/LF%20Early%20Intervention%20Survey%20Findings.pdf
  13. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/survey-unveils-challenges-faced-by-professionals-working-alongside-special-needs-children
  14. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/pre-school-takes-in-special-needs-kids-too?xtor=CS3-17
  15. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/sail-playhouse-offers-an-inclusive-preschool-environment
  16. National Volunteer and Philanthropy Centre (NVPC). (2017). Issues faced by people with disabilities in Singapore. Retrieved from https://www.nvpc.org.sg/resources/report-on-issues-faced-by-people-with-disabilities-in-singapore
  17. http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/inclusive-pre-school-kindle-garden-set-to-double-its-fees
  18. http://lienfoundation.org/sites/default/files/Inclusive%20Survey%20Part%202%20-%20Press%20Release%20Lien%20Fdn%20Final%5B1%5D.pdf
  19. https://www.sgenable.sg/uploads/ICCP%20Service%20Matrix.pdf
  20. 20.0 20.1 http://www.dpa.org.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Incusion-in-Education2.pdf
  21. http://www.dpa.org.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Incusion-in-Education2.pdf
  22. http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/speeches/view-html?filename=20071229998.htm
  23. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/more-support-for-allied-educators-help-special-needs-students-10053202
  24. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/professionals-working-with-special-needs-kids-face-burnout-poll
  25. https://www.todayonline.com/voices/retain-special-educators-cut-burnout-rate
  26. https://www.straitstimes.com/forum/letters-on-the-web/special-education-teachers-must-be-given-enough-support
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